3.解析课后习题,提供详尽答案。本书对H.D. Brown主编的《语言学习与语言教学的原则》每章的课后思考题进行了详细解答,并对相关重要知识点进行了延伸和归纳。
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H.D.Brown《语言学习与语言教学的原则》(第3版)课后习题详解 【完整内容点击文中链接获取】

Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion

1、 In the first part of the chapter a number of “who, what ...” questions were posed. What other possible questions occur to you? Attempt some tentative answers to at least a few of the questions, and write them down for referral as you progress through the chapters of this book.

Key: There are at least four questions that occur to me. They are listed as follows, and two of them are given answers.

1) Question: What is the age of the students? Answer: They may be children between the ages of 5 and 11, or adults in their thirties.

2) Question: What sort of textbook do the learners and teachers use? Answer: They can use textbooks commonly used in schools, but they can also use materials prepared by teachers.

3) Question: What is the motivation of learners to learn language?

4) Question: What is the size of their class?


2、 Look at the definitions of language on page 4. How are they different from each other? Why are there differences in such definitions? What assumptions or biases do they reflect on the part of the writer?

Key: There are two main differences in the definitions of language on page 4. First, they are different in defining language characteristics. Second, they have different definitions of language use.

These definitions are different because the author looks at language from different angles.

These definitions convey assumptions or prejudice of the writer. For instance, Wardhaugh defines language as “a system of arbitrary vocal symbols” for communication. This definition contains two assumptions. One is that language is an arbitrary set of signs and the other is that, the purpose of language is communication.


3、 Write your own “twenty-five-word-or-less” definitions of language, learning, and teaching. What would you add to or delete from the definition given in this chapter? Save your definitions and when you finish the book determine if you would revise those definitions in any way.

Key: Here are my definitions of language, learning, and teaching.

Language is “a generative system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for communication in a speech community”.

Learning is “the active acquisition of knowledge which involves cognitive processes”.

Teaching is “the effective way of imparting knowledge”.

These definitions are simpler than the definitions given in this chapter. I delete “Language is essentially human” and “Language is acquired by all people in much the same way” from the definition given in this chapter.


内容来源 H.D.Brown《语言学习与语言教学的原则》(第3版)笔记和课后答案 



4、 Look up some abstract words in a dictionary. Try words like love, good, evil, emotion, peace, and other such terms, in what way might those definitions fall short of being adequate? Do they reveal certain theoretical biases on the part of the definer?

Key: I looked up abstract words like “Love” in Collins Dictionary online.

Collins Dictionary online defines “Love” as:

1) “the feeling that a person’s happiness is very important to you, and the way you show this feeling in your behaviour toward them”, for example, parents’ love for their children;

2) “a very strong feeling of affection toward someone who you are romantically or sexually attracted to”, for example, an old-fashioned love story;

3) “a strong liking for something, or a belief that it is important”, for example, a love of literature.

These definitions may not be adequate when describing people’s love for their country.

However, I do not see any certain theoretical biases on the part of the definer.


5、 What kind of teaching emphases would emerge in the second language classroom by keying the exclusive importance of any one of the eight subfields of linguistics listed on pages 5-6? Take several subfields and discuss the type of approach to second language teaching that might emerge.

Key: “Phonetics” and “communication systems” are two of the eight subfields of linguistics listed on pages 5-6. In the field of “phonetics”, Audio-Lingual Method might emerge in the teaching of pronunciation. In the field of “communication systems”, Communicative Language Teaching Approach might emerge in the teaching of communicative skills.


6、 What did Twaddell (a935:57) mean when he said, “The scientific method is quite simply the convention that mind does not exist”? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of attending only to “publicly observable responses” in studying human behavior. Don’t limit yourself just to language teaching in considering the ramifications of behavioristic principles.

Key: Twaddell thinks that the scientific method is quite simply the practice that mind does not exist. This means that languages can differ from each other and that no preconceptions must be taken to the field.

Attending only to “publicly observable responses” in exploring the behavior of human beings has some advantages. For example, the behavior can be described in detail and it’s easy to collect evidence. Meanwhile, this method also has some disadvantages. For example, it’s hard to define the psychological cause of human behavior.



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